CAS 68333-79-9 Ammonium Polyphosphate Fire Retardant APP II
Ammonium polyphosphate is an inorganic salt of polyphosphoric acid
and ammonia containing both chains and possibly branching. Its
chemical formula is [NH4 PO3]n showing that each monomer consists
of an orthophosphate radical of a phosphorus atom with three
oxygens and one negative charge neutralized by an ammonium cation
leaving two bonds free to polymerize. In the branched cases some
monomers are missing the ammonium anion and instead link to three
Inorganic Chemical; Essential Organics; Flame retardant; Inorganic
Additive Fire Retardant Chemical
|Moisture %||0.25 Max.|
|PH Value (100g/L)||5.5 - 7.5|
|Average particle size, D50 (um)||20 Max.|
|Solubility (g/100mLH20)||1 Max.|
|Viscosity (10%suspension,25°C)mPa.s||100 Max.|
Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is used as a flame retardant in many
applications such as paints and coatings, and in a variety of
polymers: the most important ones are polyolefins, and particularly
polypropylene, where APP is part of intumescent systems.
Compounding with APP-based flame retardants in polypropylene is
described in. Further applications are thermosets, where APP is
used in unsaturated polyesters and gel coats (APP blends with
synergists), epoxies and polyurethane castings (intumescent
APP is also applied to flame retard polyurethane foams.
Ammonium polyphosphates commercially used as flame retardants in
polymers have long chains and a specific crystallinity (Form II).
They start to decompose at 240 °C to form ammonia and phosphoric
The phosphoric acid acts as an acid catalyst in the dehydration of
carbon-based poly-alcohols, such as cellulose in wood.
The phosphoric acid reacts with alcohol groups to form
heat-unstable phosphate esters.
The esters decompose to release carbon dioxide and regenerate the
phosphoric acid catalyst.
In the gas phase, the release of non-flammable carbon dioxide helps
to dilute the oxygen of the air and flammable decomposition
products of the material that is burning.
In the condensed phase, the resultant carbonaceous char helps to
shield the underlying polymer from attack by oxygen and radiant
Use as an intumescent is achieved when combined with starch-based
materials such as pentaerythritol and melamine as expanding agent.
Ammonium polyphosphate is used as a food additive, emulsifier, and
as a fertilizer.
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